Structural Editing

Structural editing (also known as substantive editing and developmental editing) involves evaluating the text as a whole and analysing how well each part of it contributes to the central message or storyline. 

In fiction, the main areas we focus on are:

  • Plot (logical, plausible and satisfying)
  • Characters (well developed and believable)
  • Point of view (clear and appropriate)
  • Voice (consistent and authentic)
  • Pace (well managed)
  • Dialogue (realistic)
  • Flow (undisrupted and natural)

In non-fiction, the specific issues are a little different:

  • Proposition (relevant and clearly defined)
  • Explanation/exposition (clear, well researched and persuasive)
  • Content (balanced and complete)
  • Organisation (logical and easy to follow)
  • Tone (appropriate)
  • Pace (suitable)

A structural edit provides constructive feedback to make the text tighter, easier to understand and more engaging.

Copy Editing

Copy editing looks at how the information and ideas in your text are expressed. We strengthen your text by working on:

  • Clarity (well-chosen words, clearly expressed, easy to follow)
  • Tone (appropriate for the audience)
  • Consistency (discrepancies resolved)
  • Spelling, grammar and punctuation (free from errors)
  • Stylistic uniformity (adheres to the agreed style and relevant conventions).

Copy editing improves the quality of your writing and ensures it has maximum impact.


Proofreading is a systematic check of the edited text to correct any surface errors. It includes checking:

  • Spelling
  • Grammar
  • Punctuation
  • Consistency
  • Formatting.

Proofreading perfects well-written text and ensures it is ready for publication.

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